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Other name , chosen or purchased, were combinations with these roots: Blumen (flower), Fein (fine), Gold, Green, Lowen (lion), Rosen (rose), Schoen/Schein (pretty) — combined with berg (hill or mountain), thal (valley), bloom (flower), zweig (wreath), blatt (leaf), vald or wald (woods), feld (field).

Miscellaneous other names included Diamond; Glick/Gluck — luck; Hoffman — hopeful; Fried/Friedman — happiness; Lieber/Lieberman — lover.

The easiest way for Jews to assume an official last name was to adapt the name they already had, making it permanent.

This explains the use of “patronymics” and “matronymics.” PATRONYMICS (son of…..) In Yiddish or German, it would be “son” or “sohn” or “er.” In most Slavic languages like Polish or Russian, it would be “wich” or “witz.” For example: The son of Mendel took the last name Mendelsohn; the son of Abraham became Abramson or Avromovitch; the son of Menashe became Manishewitz; the son of Itzhak became Itskowitz; the son of Berl took the name Berliner; the son of Kesl took the name Kessler, etc.

For centuries, Jewish communal leaders were responsible for collecting taxes from the Jewish population on behalf of the government, and in some cases were responsible for filling draft quotas.

Jews distrusted the authorities and resisted the new requirement.

Although they were forced to take last names, at first they were used only for official purposes.

Among themselves, they kept their traditional names.

Over time, Jews accepted the new last names, which were essential as Jews sought to advance within the broader society and as the were transformed or Jews left them for big cities.

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